Who were the Mamluks in Egypt?
Mamluk, also spelled Mameluke, slave soldier, a member of one of the armies of slaves established during the Abbasid era that later won political control of several Muslim states. Under the Ayyubid sultanate, Mamluk generals used their power to establish a dynasty that ruled Egypt and Syria from 1250 to 1517.
What types of art were Mamluk specialties during the Bahri & Burji periods?
The Bahri reign defined the art and architecture of the entire Mamluk period. Mamluk decorative arts-especially enameled and gilded glass, inlaid metalwork, woodwork, and textiles-were prized around the Mediterranean as well as in Europe, where they had a profound impact on local production.
Where did the Egyptian Mamluks come from?
The Bahri Mamluks were mainly natives of southern Russia and the Burgi comprised chiefly of Circassians from the Caucasus. As steppe people, they had more in common with the Mongols than with the peoples of Syria and Egypt among whom they lived.
Do Mamluks still exist?
In the citadel of Cairo alone more than 1,000 Mamluks died. Despite Muhammad Ali’s destruction of the Mamluks in Egypt, a party of them escaped and fled south into what is now Sudan. In 1811, these Mamluks established a state at Dunqulah in the Sennar as a base for their slave trading.
What are the stylistic characteristics of mosque architecture in the Mamluk period?
The architecture of the Mamluks is primarily built of stone and predominant in the two major regions under their control: Egypt and Greater Syria. Wood is used for elements such as doors, panels and mihrabs, as well as for the lattice window screens known as mashrabiyyas. Domes are commonly built of stone.
What are the two main dynasties of Mamluks rule?
Mamluk history is divided into two periods based on different dynastic lines: the Bahri Mamluks (1250–1382) of Qipchaq Turkic origin from southern Russia, named after the location of their barracks on the Nile (al-bahr, literally “the sea,” a name given to this great river), and the Burji Mamluks (1382–1517) of …
Did the Mamluks speak Arabic?
Since most of the Mamluk rulers were monolingual Turkic speakers, several dictionaries were complied to enable communication between Arabic speaking population of the empire and its rulers. The language was also used as literary language and several Arabic and Persian works have been translated to Kipchak by Mamluks.
Who established the Mamluk army?
India. In 1206, the Mamluk commander of the Muslim forces in the Indian subcontinent, Qutb al-Din Aibak, proclaimed himself Sultan, creating the Mamluk Sultanate in Delhi which lasted until 1290.
What are the elements of Islamic art?
The four basic components of Islamic ornament are calligraphy, vegetal patterns, geometric patterns, and figural representation.
What religion were the Mamluks?
Most of the mamluks in the Ayyubids’ service were ethnic Kipchak Turks from Central Asia, who, upon entering service, were converted to Sunni Islam and taught Arabic.
How did the Mamluk art influence the Ottoman Empire?
Though the Mamluk realm was soon incorporated into the Ottoman empire (1517), Mamluk visual culture continued to inspire Ottoman and other Islamic artistic traditions. Yalman, Suzan.
What is an example of Mamluk art?
Mamluk decorative arts—especially enameled and gilded glass, inlaid metalwork, woodwork, and textiles—were prized around the Mediterranean as well as in Europe, where they had a profound impact on local production. The influence of Mamluk glassware on the Venetian glass industry is only one such example.
What was the role of slaves in the Mamluks?
After receiving instruction in Arabic, the fundamentals of Islam, and the art of warfare, slaves in the royal barracks were manumitted and given responsibilities in the Mamluk hierarchy. The Bahri reign defined the art and architecture of the entire Mamluk period.
Where did the Mamluk Sultanate come from?
The Mamluk sultanate (1250–1517) emerged from the weakening of the Ayyubid realm in Egypt and Syria (1250–60).