What is PDGF and its function?
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a potent activator for cells of mesenchymal origin. PDGF stimulates chemotaxis, proliferation, and new gene expression in monocytes-macrophages and fibroblasts in vitro, cell types considered essential for tissue repair.
How is PDGF activated?
Platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) is activated by binding to its ligand PDGF, and involved in a variety of cellular processes, e.g. proliferation, migration, survival, and cancer development1.
What is PDGF?
A family of molecules released from platelets (tiny pieces of cells that are found in the blood and that help the blood clot). Forms of PDGF help to heal wounds and to repair damage to blood vessel walls.
What is PDGF pathway?
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is produced as four distinct polypeptide monomers that dimerize to become the active form. Five different active forms can be secreted by various cell types, including endothelial cells, epithelial cells, and Kupffer cells.
What is the mechanism of action of PDGF antagonists?
Inhibition of PDGFR activation may decrease cell proliferation and increase the rate of apoptosis. PDGF antagonists include neutralizing antibodies against ligands or receptors, inhibitors of receptor dimerization, and low-molecular-weight compounds which act through competitive binding to the active site of the receptors [ 20 ].
What is the role of PDGF-B and PDGFR in angiogenesis?
The crucial role of PDGF-B and PDGFR-β in angiogenesis has been demonstrated by gene targeting experiments, and their expression correlates with increased vascularity and maturation of the vascular wall. PDGF and their receptors were identified in a large variety of human tumor cells.
What is the function of PDGFR dimers?
PDGF drives assembly of monomeric PDGFRs into dimers, which de-represses the receptor’s intrinsic kinase activity. The activated PDGFRs initiates signal pathways that instruct cells to migrate and proliferate. Activated PDGFR dimers are internalized and degraded, which terminates signaling.
How do Homo-and heterodimers of the PDGF subunits act?
Homo- and heterodimers of PDGF-A, PDGF-B, PDGF-C and PDGF-D subunits act by binding to homo- or heterodimers of the PDGF tyrosine kinase receptors, PDGFR-α and PDGFR-β.
Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF) PDGF stimulates the growth of its target cells, but also affects chemotaxis, i.e., directed cell movement, and cell shape through reorganization of the actin filament system. PDGF also affects the differentiation of specific cell types and promotes cell survival.
What does PDGF stand for?
Platelet-derived growth factor
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) constitutes a family of dimeric isoforms, acting on connective tissue cells and certain other cell types. PDGF was originally discovered as a constituent of platelets, which are released into serum in conjunction with blood coagulation.
Where is PDGF expressed?
In the adult testis, PDGF-A is expressed in all somatic cellular components of the tissue (Sertoli cells, Leydig cells, and PMCs) and in the cells of the seminiferous epithelium, with the exception of spermatogonia (B), PDGF-B in Leydig cells and PMCs (D), PDGFR-α in Sertoli cells and Leydig cells (F), and PDGFR-β in …
Is PDGF a gene?
The PDGFB gene provides instructions for making one version (isoform) of the platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) protein. This protein is involved in many cellular processes, including cell growth and division (proliferation), maturation (differentiation), and movement.
How is PDGF made?
Although PDGF is synthesized, stored, and released by platelets upon their activation, it can also be produced by other cells; this includes smooth muscle cells, activated macrophages, and endothelial cells.
What is the source of PDGF?
Platelet Derived Growth Factors (PDGF)
|Cell Type Affected
|Platelet-Derived Growth Factor
|from human platelets
|chrondrocyte mesenchymal cell fibroblast glial cell muscle cell
|Platelet-Derived Growth Factor
|from porcine platelets
|glial cell fibroblast mesenchymal cell chrondrocyte muscle cell
What is Vegfa gene?
Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) is a gene that encodes a member of the PDGF/VEGF growth factor family. The protein functions as a glycosylated mitogen and acts on endothelial cells to increase vascular permeability, angiogenesis, vasculogenesis, endothelial cell growth, and cell migration.
Is PDGF a cytokine?
PDGF-C is a recently identified cytokine that acts via the PDGF-α receptor and is a potent mitogen for human fibroblasts and vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro. Observations in different organs suggest that PDGF-C plays an important role in the regulation of fibrosis.
What protein is activated by PDGF?
PDGF-BB activates protein kinase C that leads to the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. In some cells, PDGF signaling can lead to the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2) that can further phosphorylate cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2).
Who discovered PDGF?
When the two of us arrived in the laboratory of Russell Ross in 1975 and 1979, PDGF had already been “discovered” but was still known only as a growth-promoting “activity” from platelets.