What is hemodynamic response to intubation?
King et al.  in 1951 first described sympathetic hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation. DL exerting a pressure over the base of the tongue by the laryngoscope blade stimulates proprioceptors, resulting in a significant proportionate increase in catecholamine and hemodynamic parameters.
What equipment is needed to intubate a patient?
Equipment includes suction, appropriate-sized bag and mask, oxygen source, appropriate size endotracheal tubes including a size larger and one size smaller, laryngoscope and appropriate-sized laryngoscope blades (including one size smaller and one size larger), endotracheal tube-securing equipment (tape or other).
How do you avoid intubation response?
1) Beta Blockers- Esmolol as a bolus of 1 mg/kg three minutes prior to intubation; or as an infusion of 1.5 mg/kg over 10 minutes prior to intubation suppresses the sympathetic response. dose of 0.25 mg/kg given over 1 minute, five minutes prior to intubation also decreases the pressor response to intubation.
What parameter gives us best idea of endotracheal intubation?
Arterial blood gas analysis will facilitate our decision to make intubation. Non-invasive pulse oximetry and continuous capnography values may also be a guide, but the most important thing is that delayed intubation decision may bring life-threatening situations.
Why does intubation cause tachycardia?
Stimulation of the upper respiratory tract during tracheal intubation under general anaesthesia causes activation of the sympathoadrenal system and results in hypertension, tachycardia and also an increase in intracranial pressure.
How do you intubate a blunt response?
There are various methods of effectively suppressing the intubation response. The basis of suppression is to use a sufficient dose of a chosen induction agent combined with a suppressive dose of a short-acting opiate, possibly combined with an adjunct drug with anti- catecholamine effects.
What are the equipment required in intubation of ET tube?
Stylet: A thin malleable rod or wire which is placed inside the tube to make insertion easier. The stylet can bend to fit the curvature of the airway and minimize trauma. Syringe: To inflate the balloon in the tube. Suction catheter: A tube to suction out secretions and prevent aspiration.
What are the difficult airway equipments?
The options include the intubating laryngeal mask airway, fiberoptic bronchoscope, intubating stylet, articulating laryngoscope, video laryngoscope, and cricothyroidotomy.
Why is lidocaine used during intubation?
Evidence suggests that using intravenous lidocaine 2 to 3 minutes before rapid sequence intubation is safe and may help attenuate the increase in intracranial pressure associated with intubation in the traumatically brain-injured patient, potentially improving long-term outcome.
What do you check after intubation?
Waveform capnography: Capnography provides the most reliable evidence of the placement of the endotracheal tube. It is essential to confirm the correct placement of the endotracheal tube (ETT) promptly after intubation.
How do you assess the patient after intubation?
Instead, focus on these key post-intubation steps:
- Hook up waveform capnography to monitor the patient.
- Ensure that the tube is stable and well secured.
- Give the patient’s family updates on the patient’s progress, especially if there was little time for information during the emergency.
- Humidify the air if appropriate.
How does intubation affect blood pressure?
Nasotracheal intubation was accompanied by significant increases in blood pressure and heart rate compared to baseline values in both groups. Blood pressure and heart rate at intubation, and the maximum values of blood pressure during the observation were significantly higher in the fibreoptic bronchoscope group.
Why does BP drop after intubation?
Answer. Hypotension after intubation is usually attributable to diminished central venous blood return to the heart secondary to elevated intrathoracic pressures.
How will you perform rapid sequence induction?
It involves loss of consciousness during cricoid pressure followed by intubation without face mask ventilation. The aim is to intubate the trachea as quickly and as safely as possible. This technique is employed daily during emergency surgery.
What is used for difficult intubation?
Options include a video laryngoscope, Combitube, bougies, intubating laryngeal mask airway, intubating stylet, fiber-optic bronchoscope, and an articulating laryngoscope.
Why does lidocaine decrease ICP?
The decrease in ICP is most probably related to its sympatholytic activity. Lidocaine also decreases cerebral metabolism and stabilizes cell membranes by blocking membrane sodium channels. Prophylactic lidocaine also obtunds the rise in intraorbital pressure that accompanies tracheal manipulation.
What is 5 point auscultation after intubation?
Placement with proof Use the 5-point auscultation method: Listen over each lateral lung field, the left axilla, and the left supraclavicular region for good breath sounds. No air movement should occur over the stomach.
How do nurses assess for correct placement of an endotracheal tube immediately after the intubation?
A chest radiograph can be used to confirm correct tube position within the trachea, which should be just below the level of the vocal cords and well above the carina. Various techniques have been described to achieve tube positioning above the carina prior to X‐ray confirmation.