What is Bose-Einstein condensate theory?

What is Bose-Einstein condensate theory?

A Bose-Einstein condensate is a group of atoms cooled to within a hair of absolute zero. When they reach that temperature the atoms are hardly moving relative to each other; they have almost no free energy to do so. At that point, the atoms begin to clump together, and enter the same energy states.

What is the importance of Bose-Einstein condensate?

An important effect, that can observed in Bose Einstein Condensates, is quantum mechanical tunneling. It means that a small fraction of the condensate can overcome a barrier that could not be overcome by a classical particle. A fraction of the condensate “tunnels” through this barrier.

Has Bose-Einstein condensate been proven?

A gas, for example, can be ionised at high temperatures to form a plasma. In 1995, researchers were able to prove that a fifth state of matter could be created at very low temperatures — the Bose-Einstein condensate. In quantum mechanics, the Bose-Einstein condensate is used to conduct quantum experiments.

Where is BEC found?

A Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC), as the collective low-energy state of bosons has come to be known, is very much possible and has been found to exist not only in ultracold atomic gases, but also at higher temperatures in materials hosting bosonic quasiparticles such as magnons, excitons and polaritons.

Where is BEC used?

BECs have also been used to create atom lasers, atomic clocks and gravitational, rotational or magnetic sensors with excellent sensitivity. In terms of the experimental techniques, making atomic BECs in the lab has become routine.

Does Bose-Einstein condensate exist at high temperature?

NUS researchers have predicted that an exotic state of matter, known as a Bose-Einstein condensate, can exist at relatively high temperatures (around 50 K to 100 K) in systems comprising organic molecules on two-dimensional (2D) semiconducting materials.

What is Bose-Einstein condensate examples?

Two examples of materials containing Bose-Einstein condensates are superconductors and superfluids. Superconductors conduct electricity with virtually zero electrical resistance: Once a current is started, it flows indefinitely. The liquid in a superfluid also flows forever. In effect, there is no friction.

Who invented Bose-Einstein condensate?

The discovery and subsequent investigation of this new state of matter—termed the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC)—has earned Eric A. Cornell, Wolfgang Ketterle and Carl. E. Wieman this year’s Nobel Prize in Physics.

How is BEC created?

A BEC is formed by cooling a gas of extremely low density (about 100,000 times less dense than normal air) to ultra-low temperatures.

What is the temperature of Bose-Einstein condensate?

Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), a state of matter in which separate atoms or subatomic particles, cooled to near absolute zero (0 K, − 273.15 °C, or − 459.67 °F; K = kelvin), coalesce into a single quantum mechanical entity—that is, one that can be described by a wave function—on a near-macroscopic scale.