What does seminoma look like?

What does seminoma look like?

On gross examination, seminomas are pale grey to yellow nodules that are uniform or slightly lobulated and often bulge from the cut surface. Tumor staging is via the TNM staging system (see testicular cancer staging).

What Tumour marker is raised in seminoma?

Testicular Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) LDH is less specific for testis cancer than HCG or AFP. However, elevated LDH levels are correlated to high tumor burden in seminoma and recurrence in NSGCT.

Which is a microscopic feature of seminoma?

Microscopic examination shows that seminomas are usually composed of either a sheet-like or lobular pattern of cells with a fibrous stromal network. The fibrous septa almost always contain focal lymphocyte inclusions, and granulomas are sometimes seen.

What is the most common sonographic appearance of a seminoma?

At gross pathologic analysis, classic seminoma is typically tan to pale yellow, solid, and fleshy. It is most often a well-circumscribed mass. Frequently, small foci of hemorrhage and necrosis are present (16).

What is a classic seminoma?

Seminomas develop from the sperm-producing germ cells of the testicle. The 2 main subtypes of these tumors are classical (or typical) seminomas and spermatocytic seminomas. Classical seminoma: More than 95% of seminomas are typical. These usually occur in men when they are between their late 30s and early 50s.

Why is hCG elevated in seminoma?

These results suggest that most seminomas produce a slight amount of hCG; that an elevated hCG serum level indicates the presence of metastatic tumors and mainly reflects an increase in tumor volume but not in cellular malignancy potential; and that the LDH serum level, rather than hCG, is more useful as a prognostic …

What is hypoechoic mass in testicle?

An avascular hypoechoic testicular lesion was defined as one with echogenicity lower than that of adjacent testicular parenchyma and without internal vascularity during color Doppler imaging.

What is seminoma in histology?

Seminoma is the most common pure germ cell tumor (GCT) of the testis, accounting for up to 50% of cases. Among mixed GCTs, seminoma is also commonly present in combination with teratoma, yolk sac tumor, and/or embryonal carcinoma.

What’s the difference between seminoma and nonseminoma?

Seminomas are very sensitive to radiation therapy. Nonseminoma: This more common type of testicular cancer tends to grow more quickly than seminomas. Nonseminoma tumors are often made up of more than one type of cell, and are identified according to these different cell types: Choriocarcinoma (rare)

What hCG level indicates tumor?

Generally speaking, any level above normal may indicate cancer. Often it’s not hard to tell, since hCG levels can skyrocket to 300-10,000 mIU/mL in some types of cancer [3, 4]. If your hCG or β-hCG levels are high, your doctor may pursue more aggressive or longer treatment options [3, 4].

What is seminoma?

(SEH-mih-NOH-muh) A type of cancer that begins in germ cells in males. Germ cells are cells that form sperm in males or eggs in females. Seminomas occur most often in the testicle, but they may also occur in other areas of the body, such as the brain, chest, or abdomen. Seminomas tend to grow and spread slowly.

What cancers cause high hCG?

Ovarian and testicular cancer can dramatically increase hCG levels. Other cancer types, such as breast and lung cancer, may also increase hCG blood levels. High hCG levels further feed the growth of tumors and the blood vessels that feed them. Pregnancy tests should never be used to screen for these cancer types.

Is seminoma slow growing?

Seminoma: This is a slow-growing form of testicular cancer found in men in their 40s and 50s. The cancer is in the testes, but it can spread to the lymph nodes. Lymph node involvement is either treated with radiotherapy or chemotherapy.

What is Stage 2 a seminoma?

Patients with Stage II testicular seminoma have a curable cancer that involves the testis and the retroperitoneal lymph nodes. Retroperitoneal lymph node involvement is further characterized by the number of nodes involved and the size of involved nodes.