What are the key events of an AOP?
Key events after the molecular initiating event characterize the progression of the toxicity. Early key events can include changes in protein production or molecular signaling that occur in individual cells. Later key events can include altered tissue or organ function.
What is AOP analysis?
An AOP is a linear description of a toxicological process from the molecular initiating event (MIE), in which a stressor first perturbs the biological system, through a series of intermediate or key events (KEs), to the adverse outcome (AO) that may manifest as a consequence.
What is Niceatm?
The NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM) is an NTP office focused on the development and evaluation of alternatives to animal use for chemical safety testing.
What is the adverse outcome pathway concept?
The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) concept is a theoretical framework that describes the activity of a chemical from its initial interaction with a biological system (the molecular initiating event) through a series of intermediate events to the eventual toxic response (adverse outcome).
Which adverse outcome pathways AOPs are methods of hazard identification?
An emerging approach to hazard identification is the use of Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs). AOPs reflect the move in toxicity testing from high- dose studies in laboratory animals to in vitro methods that evaluate changes in normal cellular signaling pathways using human-relevant cells or tissues .
What is a molecular initiating event?
A molecular initiating event (MIE) is the initial interaction between a molecule and a biomolecule or biosystem that can be causally linked to an outcome via a pathway. As such, MIEs can encompass human and environmental toxicology and are related directly to an outcome—adverse or otherwise.
What is the Iccvam Authorization Act?
ICCVAM Authorization Act of 2000 – Defines “alternative test method” as a test method that reduces the number of animals required, refines procedures to lessen or eliminate pain or distress to animals, enhances animal well-being, or replaces animals with non-animal systems or one animal species with a lower animal …
What does EURL Ecvam stand for?
Welcome to the European Union Reference Laboratory for alternatives to animal testing – EURL ECVAM!